Journal Articles (All Issues)



Pradnya Kulkarni [0000-0001-6855-2707]1, Dr. Vinaya Gohokar [0000-0002-7386-0234]1, Kunal Kulkarni [0009-0006-1143-253X] 1

Keyword Communication, Hydroponics, IoT Technology, Agriculture, Sensors


Worldwide population is anticipated around 9 billion till 2050. Therefore traditional farming has limitations to fulfill the food demands. Alternate solutions are necessary for farming that can use modern technologies. Growing the crops in different regions of the world is a challenge due to environmental conditions. Hydroponics has become popular for the last few years as it can produce better quality crops using minimum resources. Being scalable to use in greenhouse, poly house or indoor set up, hydroponics is a sustainable solution for smart agriculture. It is a method of growing plants without using soil. Nutrients dissolved in water are given to plants. This paper presents a review of various hydroponic methods mainly used in India; technologies used in IoT based hydroponic farming and communication protocols used in data transfer. Various types of plants like leafy, tuber and fruit plants are cultivated using suitable hydroponic methods. The work presents the plant nutritional requirements. Parameters such as pH, temperature etc. required for plant growth are discussed. Technologies like Internet of Things, Machine Learning etc. are widely used for monitoring the parameters and to get better quality yield. Wireless Sensor Network collects the information from the field to make a data repository about temperature, humidity etc. Data is processed and sent using networks. Image processing helps collect plant images for monitoring, disease tracking as per requirement. Network technologies like LoRa, ZigBee, etc. help exchange the information from field to control station. The overall work done by researchers worldwide is showcased for all these aspects. Open issues and challenges are discussed for future work in hydroponics.


    1. K. A. Jani and N. K. Chaubey, "A Novel Model for Optimization of Resource Utilization in Smart Agriculture System Using IoT (SMAIoT)," in IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 9, no. 13, pp. 11275-11282, 1 July1, 2022, doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2021. 2. T. A. M., R. U. G. K. L. P. S., M. F. A. Sakee, I. M. M. M, H. Mahaadikara and S. Wellalage, "Fully Automatic Hydroponic Cultivation Growth System," 2021 3rd International Conference on Advancements in Computing (ICAC), Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2021, pp. 205-209, doi: 10.1109/ICAC54203.2021.9671167. 3. R. S. Al-Gharibi, "IoT-Based Hydroponic System," 2021 International Conference on System, Computation, Automation and Networking (ICSCAN), Puducherry, India, 2021, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/ICSCAN53069.2021.9526391. 4. 3128161N. Bakhtar, V. Chhabria, I. Chougle, H. Vidhrani and R. Hande, "IoT based Hydroponic Farm," 2018 International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT), Tirunelveli, India, 2018, pp. 205-209, doi: 10.1109/ICSSIT.2018.8748447. 6. P. P. V, S. S M and S. S. C, "Robust Smart Irrigation System using Hydroponic Farming based on Data Science and IoT," 2020 IEEE Bangalore Humanitarian Technology Conference (B-HTC), 2020, pp. 1-4, doi: 10.1109/B-HTC50970.2020.9297842. 7. G. Manogaran, M. Alazab, K. Muhammad and V. H. C. de Albuquerque, "Smart Sensing Based Functional Control for Reducing Uncertainties in Agricultural Farm Data Analysis," in IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 21, no. 16, pp. 17469-17478, 15 Aug.15, 2021, doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2021.3054561. 8. K. Wongpatikaseree, N. Hnoohom and S. Yuenyong, "Machine Learning Methods for Assessing Freshness in Hydroponic Produce," 2018 International Joint Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Natural Language Processing (iSAI-NLP), Pattaya, Thailand, 2018, pp. 1-4, doi: 10.1109/iSAI-NLP.2018.8692883. 9. U. Arora, S. Shetty, R. Shah and D. K. Sinha, "Automated Dosing System in Hydroponics with Machine Learning," 2021 International Conference on Communication information and Computing Technology (ICCICT), Mumbai, India, 2021, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/ICCICT50803.2021.9510115. 10. A. Ani and P. Gopalakirishnan, "Automated Hydroponic Drip Irrigation Using Big Data," 2020 Second International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA), Coimbatore, India, 2020, pp. 370-375, doi: 10.1109/ICIRCA48905.2020.9182908. 11. Helmy, E. U. Sari, T. A. Setyawan, A. Nursyahid, K. A. Enriko and S. Widodo, "Automatic Control of Hydroponic Nutrient Solution Concentration Based on Edge and Cloud Computing Using Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) Protocol," 2021 8th International Conference on Information Technology, Computer and Electrical Engineering (ICITACEE), 2021, pp. 207-212, doi: 10.1109/ICITACEE53184.2021.9617513. 12. Qiong and P Hao, “Design and Implementation of Irrigation Water Saving Control System Based on WSND”, 2021 International Conference on Intelligent Transportation, Big Data & Smart City (ICITBS), Xi'an, China, 2021, pp. 75-78, doi: 10.1109/ICITBS53129.2021.00027. 13. H. A. Alharbi and M. Aldossary, "Energy-Efficient Edge-Fog-Cloud Architecture for IoT-Based Smart Agriculture Environment," in IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 110480-110492, 2021, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3101397. 14. T. Namgyel et al., "IoT based hydroponic system with supplementary LED light for smart home farming of lettuce," 2018 15th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON), Chiang Rai, Thailand, 2018, pp. 221-224, doi: 10.1109/ECTICon.2018.8619983. 15. S. Dudala, S. K. Dubey and S. Goel, "Microfluidic Soil Nutrient Detection System: Integrating Nitrite, pH, and Electrical Conductivity Detection," in IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 4504-4511, 15 April15, 2020, doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2020.2964174. 16. E. -T. Bouali, M. R. Abid, E. -M. Boufounas, T. A. Hamed and D. Benhaddou, "Renewable Energy Integration Into Cloud & IoT-Based Smart Agriculture," in IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 1175-1191, 2022, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3138160. 17. A. K. Aliyana, P. Ganguly, A. Beniwal, S. K. N. Kumar and R. Dahiya, "Disposable pH Sensor on Paper Using Screen-Printed Graphene-Carbon Ink Modified Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles," in IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 22, no. 21, pp. 21049-21056, 1 Nov.1, 2022, doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2022.3206212. 18. S. V. S. Ramakrishnam Raju, Bhasker Dappuri, P. Ravi Kiran Varma, Murali Yachamaneni, D. Marlene Grace Verghese, and Manoj Kumar Mishra, “Design and Implementation of Smart Hydroponics Farming Using IoT-Based AI Controller with Mobile Application System 1. “, Vol 2022 Article ID 4435591 19. Halveland, J. (2020). Design of a Shallow-Aero Ebb and Flow Hydroponics System and Associated Educational Module for Tri Cycle Farms. Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses Retrieved from 20. Chowdhury, M.E.H.; Khandakar, A.; Ahmed, S.; Al-Khuzaei, F.; Hamdalla, J.; Haque, F.; Reaz, M.B.I.; Al Shafei, A.; Al-Emadi, N. Design, Construction and Testing of IoT Based Automated Indoor Vertical Hydroponics Farming Test-Bed in Qatar. Sensors 2020, 20, 5637. 21. V Palandea, A Zaheera, and K Georgea “Fully Automated Hydroponic System for Indoor Plant Growth”, 2017 International Conference on Identification, Information and Knowledge in the Internet of Things 22. E. D. Nugroho, A. G. Putrada and A. Rakhmatsyah, "Predictive Control on Lettuce NFT-based Hydroponic IoT using Deep Neural Network," 2021 International Symposium on Electronics and Smart Devices (ISESD), Bandung, Indonesia, 2021, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/ISESD53023.2021.9501402. 23. Wiedjaja Atmadja et al, “Indoor Hydroponic System Using IoT-Based LED”, 2022 IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 998 012048 24. D. K. Singh and R. Sobti, "Wireless Communication Technologies for Internet of Things and Precision Agriculture: A Review," 2021 6th International Conference on Signal Processing, Computing and Control (ISPCC), Solan, India, 2021, pp. 765-769, doi: 10.1109/ISPCC53510.2021.9609421. 25. Velazquez-Gonzalez, R.S.; Garcia-Garcia, A.L.; Ventura-Zapata, E.; Barceinas-Sanchez, J.D.O.; Sosa-Savedra, J.C. A Review on Hydroponics and the Technologies Associated for Medium- and Small-Scale Operations. Agriculture 2022, 12, 646. 26. F. Modu, A. Adam, F. Aliyu, A. Mabu, Mahdi Musa "A Survey of Smart Hydroponic Systems", Advances in Science, Technology and Engineering Systems Journal, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 233-248 (2020). 27. A. Pagano, D. Croce, I. Tinnirello and G. Vitale, "A Survey on LoRa for Smart Agriculture: Current Trends and Future Perspectives," in IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 3664-3679, 15 Feb.15, 2023, doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2022.3230505. 28. N. ElBeheiry and R. S. Balog, "Technologies Driving the Shift to Smart Farming: A Review," in IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1752-1769, 1 Feb.1, 2023, doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2022.3225183. 29. Seerat Jan, Zahida Rashid, Tanveer Ahmad Ahngar, Sadaf Iqbal, M. Abbass Naikoo, Shabina Majeed, Tauseef Ahmad Bhat, Razia Gul1 and Insha Nazir, “ Hydroponics – A Review” International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 9(8):1779-1787 30. B. Almadani and S. M. Mostafa, "IIoT Based Multimodal Communication Model for Agriculture and Agro-Industries," in IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 10070-10088, 2021, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3050391. 31. M. S. Farooq, S. Riaz, M. A. Helou, F. S. Khan, A. Abid and A. Alvi, "Internet of Things in Greenhouse Agriculture: A Survey on Enabling Technologies, Applications, and Protocols," in IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 53374-53397, 2022, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3166634. 32. T. Ojha, S. Misra and N. S. Raghuwanshi, "Internet of Things for Agricultural Applications: The State of the Art," in IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 8, no. 14, pp. 10973-10997, 15 July15, 2021, doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2021.3051418. 33. S. Qazi, B. A. Khawaja and Q. U. Farooq, "IoT-Equipped and AI-Enabled Next Generation Smart Agriculture: A Critical Review, Current Challenges and Future Trends," in IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 21219-21235, 2022, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3152544. 34. V. P. Kour and S. Arora, "Recent Developments of the Internet of Things in Agriculture: A Survey," in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 129924-129957, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3009298. 35. M. Ayaz, M. Ammad-Uddin, Z. Sharif, A. Mansour and E. -H. M. Aggoune, "Internet-of-Things (IoT)-Based Smart Agriculture: Toward Making the Fields Talk," in IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 129551-129583, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2932609. 36. M. S. Farooq, R. Javid, S. Riaz and Z. Atal, "IoT Based Smart Greenhouse Framework and Control Strategies for Sustainable Agriculture," in IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 99394-99420, 2022, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3204066. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.


View/Download PDF





Vol. 43 No. 01 (2024)